The oldest surviving manual on western swordsmanship dates to around 1300, although references to fencing schools dates back to the 12th century.
The ancestor of modern fencing originated in Spain, where several books on fencing were written. Treatise on Arms was written by Diego de Valera between 1458 and 1471, shortly before
dueling came under official ban by the Catholic Monarchs. When Spain became the leading power of Europe, the Spanish carried fencing abroad and particularly into the south of Italy, one
of the main battlefields between both nations.
Modern fencing originated in the 18th century, in the Italian school of fencing of the Renaissance, and, under their influence, was improved by the French school.
The origins of armed combat are prehistoric, beginning with club, spear and axe. Fighting with shield and sword developed in the Bronze Age; Bladed weapons such as the khopesh appeared in
the Middle Bronze Age, and the proper sword in the Late Bronze Age.
Homer's Iliad includes some of the earliest descriptions of combat with shield, sword and spear, usually between two heroes who pick one another for a duel. Roman gladiators engaged in
dual combat in a sport-like setting, evolving out of Etruscan ritual. Tomb frescoes from Paestum (4th century BC) show paired fighters, with helmets, spears and shields, in a
propitiatory funeral blood rite that anticipates gladiator games.
Romans who frequented the gymnasia and baths often fenced with a stick whose point was covered with a ball. Vegetius, the Late Roman military writer described practicing against a post
and fencing with other soldiers.