There are a number of martial arts styles and schools of Russian origin. Traditional Russian fist fighting has existed since the 1st millennium A.D. It was outlawed in the Russian
Empire in 1832, however it has seen a resurgence after the break-up of the Soviet Union.
During the Soviet era the government wanted to create both military hand-to-hand combat systems and combat sports, resulting in the creation of sambo. During the 1980s and after the fall of Communism the interest in the folk martial arts was reawakened. Through ethnographic study, many new styles based on the folk styles appeared.
(source citation en.wikipedia.org )